structure and write expressions 11

Problem 78 Nouns that function as Adjectives :

noun noun All of us are foreign language teachers

Incorrect: I forgot their telephone’s number.
Correct : I forgot their telephone number.

Incorrect: There is a sale at the at the shoes store.
Correct : There is a sale at the at the shoe store.

Incorrect: Put the mail on the hall’s table.
Correct : Put the mail on the hall table.

Problem 79 Hyphenated Adjectives :A adjective – adjective noun
Agriculture 420 is a five – hour class

a adjective – adjective – adjective noun
A sixty – year – old employee may retire

Incorrect: Can you make change for a twenty-dollars bill?
Correct :Can you make change for a twenty-dollar bill?

Incorrect: A two-doors car is cheaper than a four-doors model.
Correct : a two – door car is cheaper than a four-door model.

Incorrect: I have to write a one-thousand-words paper this weekend.
Correct :I have to write a one- thousand – word this weekend.

Problem 80 Adjectives Ending in –edand –ing :
–ed adjective (by someone or something)
The audience is thrilled (by the concert)

–ed adjective (to someone or something)
The cozcert is thrilling (to the audience)

Incorrect: What an interested idea!
Correct : What an interesting idea!
(We are interested)

Incorrect: Drug abuse is increasing at an alarmed rate.
Correct : Drug abuse is increasing at an alarming rate.
(We are alarmed)

Incorrect: The petition has been signed by concerning citizens
Correct : The petition has been signed by concerned citizens.

Problem 81 Cause-and-Result –So :
CAUSE RESULT
adverb
S V so adjective that S V
She got up so late that she missed her bus The music was so loud that we couldn’t talk

Incorrect: We arrived so late as Professor Baker had already called the roll.
Correct :We arrived so late that Professor Baker had already called the roll.

Incorrect: He drives so fast as no one likes to ride with him.
Correct :He drives so fast that no one likes to ride with him.

Incorrect: Preparing frozen foods is too easy that anyone can do it.
Correct:Preparing frozen foods is so easy that anyone can do it.

Problem 82 Cause-and-Result–Such :
CAUSE RESULT
S V such a adjective count noun (singular) that S V
It was such a hot day that we went out
Or
S V such adjective a count noun (singular) that S V
It was so hot a day that we went out
CAUSE RESULT
count noun (singular). noun
S V such adjective (noncount) that S V
These are such long assignments that I can’t finish them
This is such good news that I will call them

Incorrect: We had so a small lunch that I am hungry already.
Correct : We had such a small lunch that I am hungry already.
or
We had so small a lunch that I am hungry already.

Incorrect: That so many advances have been made in so short time is the most
valid agreement for retaining the research unit.
Correct : That so many advances have been made in such a short time is the most
valid agreement or retaining the research unit.
or
That so many advances have been made in so short a time is the most
valid agreement for retaining the research unit.

Incorrect: It is so nice weather that I would like to go to the beach.
Correct : It is such nice that I would like to go to the beach.

Problem 83 Emphasis –Too :

CAUSE RESULT
too adjective infinitive
The tea is too hot to drink

Incorrect: This brand is too expensive for buy.
Correct : This brand is too expensive to buy .

Incorrect: He always plays his stereo so loud (to enjoy).
Correct : He always plays his stereo too loud (to enjoy).

Incorrect: He is too cold go swimming.
Correct : He is too cold to go swimming.

Problem 84 Emphasis–Very :

very adjective
This tea is very hot

Incorrect: New York is so big, and I am not used to it
Correct : New York is very big , and I am not used to it.

Incorrect: Last month we had a too high electric bill.
Correct :Last month we had a very high electric bill.

Incorrect: Darlene says that the courts are so lenient.
Correct : Darlene says that the courts are very lenient.

Structure and write expressions 10

Problem 74 Sufficiency – Enough with Adjectives :

S V adjective enough infinitive
It is warm enough to go swimming
S V not adjective enough infinitive
It is not warm enough to go swimming

Incorrect: He should be as strong enough to get out of bed in a few days.
Correct : He should be strong enough to get out of bed in a few days.

Incorrect: Billy isn’t enough old to enlist in the army.
Correct : Billy isn’t old enough to enlist in the army.

Incorrect: His score on the exam was enough good to qualify him for a graduate program.
Correct : His score on the exam was good enough to qualify him for a graduate program.

Problem 75 Consecutive Order – One, Another, the Other :

1 2
one count noun(singular) another count noun (singular)
One movie start at five, another movie starts at seven, and
3
the other count noun (singular)
the other movie starts at nine
1 2 3
One count noun(singular) another the other One bus leaves at two, another at six, and the other at ten

Incorrect: Of the three busiest vacation areas in the United States, one is Disney World, one another is New York City, and the other is Washington D.C.
Correct : Of the three busiest vacation areas in the United States, one (area) is Disney World, one another (area) is New York City, and the other (area) is Washington D.C.

Incorrect: There are three major restaurant chains near the campus that specialize in fast-food hamburgers: one is McDonald’s, another is Wendy’s, and the another one is Burger King.
Correct : There are three major restaurant chains near the campus that specialize in fast-food hamburgers: one (restaurant) is McDonald’s, another (restaurant) is Wendy’s, and the other one is Burger King.

Incorrect: One English proficiency test is the TOEFL and other is Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency.
Correct : one English proficiency test is the TOEFL and the other (test) is Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency.

Problem 76 Consecutive Order – Some, Other, the Other Some, Others, the Others (the Rest) :

1 2
Some count noun(plural) other count noun(plural)
Some houses are for rent, other houses are for sale, and
3
the other
the rest of the count noun (plural)
the other houses are empty
the rest of the
1 2
Some count noun (plural) others
Some schools are universities, others are colleges, and
Some schools are universities, others are colleges, and
3
the others
the rest
the others are junior colleges
the rest are junior colleges

Incorrect: Some people finish a bachelor’s degree in four years and take five years.
Correct : some people finish a bachelor’s degree in four years and the other take five years.

Incorrect: Some of the home computer models on sale have 1.5GB, other models have 2.5GB, and the rest of models have 4GB hard drives.
Correct : some of the home computer models on sale have 1.5GB, other models have 2.5GB, and the rest of the models have 4GB hard drives.

Incorrect: Some applicants want student visas, other applicants want resident visas, and the others applicants want tourist ervisas.
Correct : some applicants want student visas, other applicants want resident visas, and the other applicants want tourist visas.

Problem 77 Numerical Order :

the ordinal number count noun(singular)
I am outlining the sixth chapter in my notebook

count noun(singular) cardinal number
I am outlining chapter six in my notebook

Incorrect: Your tickets are for gate the tenth, section B.
Correct : Your tickets are for gate ten, section B.

Incorrect: Look in volume second of the Modern Medical Dictionary.
Correct : Look in the second volume of the Modern Medical Dictionary.
or
Look in volume two of the Modern Medical Dictionary.

Incorrect: The New York-Washington train is arriving on track the fourth.
Correct : The New York-Washington train is arriving on track four.

Structure and written expressions 9

Problem 68 Much and Many :

many noun (count–plural
There are many television programs for children on Saturday
much noun (noncount)
We don’t have much information

Incorrect: How much years have you been living in Texas?
Correct : How many years have you been living in Texas?

Incorrect: He always has much problems with his teeth.
Correct : He always has many problems with his teeth.

Incorrect: I think that there is too many violence on TV.
Correct : I think that there is too much violence on TV.

Problem 69 A Little and Little :

A Few and Few
a little
little noun (noncount)
We have a little time
We have little time
a few
few noun (count–plural)
We made a few mistakes
We made few mistakes

Incorrect: There are few tickets left for the concert.
Correct : There are a few tickets left for the concert.
(some)

Incorrect: A few people in my apartment building are friendly.
Correct : few people in my apartment building are friendly.(not many)

Problem 70 Only a Few and Only a Little :

only a few noun (count–plural)
Only a few dollars have been budgeted for supplies
Only a little noun (noncount)
We have only a little homework for Monday

Incorrect: We will need only a few food for the picnic.
Correct : We will need only a little food for the picnic.

Incorrect: Only few people were at the reception
Correct : only a few people were at the reception.

Problem 71 : A Large (Small) Number of and a large (Small) Amount of large :

A number of
small noun (count–plural)
A large number of students from other countries attend State University large
A amount of
small noun (noncount)
A small amount of rain is expected tomorrow

Incorrect: The lab has a large number of equipment.
Correct : The lab has a large amount of equipment.

Problem 72 Almost All of the and Most of the :

almost all (of the)
most all (of the) noun (count–plural) verb (plural)
Almost all (of the) trees in our yard are oaks
Most (of the) trees are oaks
almost all (of the)
most all (of the) noun (noncount) verb (singular)
Almost all (of the) art by R. C. Gorman is expensive
Most (of the) art by R. C. Gorman is expensive

incorrect: Most of the teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
Correct : almost all of the teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
or
Almost all teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
or
Most of the teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
or
Most teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.

Problem 73 Sufficiency – Enough with Nouns :

noun (count–plural)
noun (noncount)
We have enough tickets
We have enough time
noun (count–plural)
noun (noncount)
We have tickets enough
We have time enough
or
There aren’t carsenough for all of us to go.

Incorrect: Do we have hamburgers enough as for the party?
Correct : Do we have enough hamburgers for the party?
or
Do we have hamburgers enough for the party?

Incorrect: Virginia doesn’t have the enough information to make a decision.
Correct : Virginia doesn’t have enough information to make a decision.
or
Virginia doesn’t have information enough to make a decision.

Incorrect: I need to buy a lamp because I don’t have enough the light in my room.
Correct : I need to buy a lamp because I don’t have enough light in my room.
or
I need to buy a lamp because I don’t have light enough in my room.

Lesson 14

Vocabulary :

commonplace (biasa)
interconnected (saling berhubungan)
revealed (mengungkapkan)
awareness (kesadaran)
inventive (berdaya cipta)
congenially (cocok)
cooperatively (kerjasama)
incessantly (terus menerus)
encouragement (dorongan)
glider (pesawat peluncur)
gilders (menyepuh)
slightly (sedikit)
maneuvering (mengatur siasat)
efforts (usaha)
guiding (membimbing)
advantages (keuntungan)
precisely (tepat)
manned (diawaki)
proportion (ukuran)
combustion (pembakaran)

The Ideas Of Each Paragraph :

1. Reason for the success of the Wright brothers
2. Distinguishing the Wright brothers from other engineers
3. Progress of research Wright brothers
4. Risks of research Wright brother

Summary Of The Passage :

In spite of these advantages, however, the Wright brothers might not have succeeded had they not been born at precisely the opportune moment in history.

Answer questions :

1. A. The reasons why the Wrigh brothers succeeded in manned flight.
2. B. Mentioned
3. C. Constantly
4. B. They were gilder pilots.
5.C. Because they were important in the refinement of the wings for their airplane
6. C. engines
7. A. destined to fail
8. D. They did not have enough power to lift their own weight.
9. D. They were well funded.

Lesson 14

New Vocabulary :

independent : independen
overseeing : mengawasi
commonly : biasanya
council : dewan
regarding : mengenai
funds : membiayai
loans : pinjaman
senate : dewan
primarily : terutama
monetary : moneter
influencing : mempengaruhi
provides : memberikan
recession : resesi/pengunduran
augmented : ditambah
fueling : bahan bakar
inflation : inflasi/pemompaan
supervises : mengawasi
stray : nyasar
established : tetapkan
frequent : sering
The Ideas Of Each Paragraph :

The origin of the Federal Reserve System
Function of the Federal Reserve System
The task of the Fed
Explanation of the Federal Reserve
Answer The Question :

1. B. The Federal Reserve System
2. A. Supervising
3. D. Approved
4. B. To regulate monetary policies
5. B. Bonds
6. C. Interest rates go up
7. B. Too much money in the economy
8. C. The FED tends to follow the policies of the executive branch of the government
9. D. The Federal Reserve receives its yearly budget from Congress

Summary Of The Passage :

It has been said that the Federal Reserve is actually a fourth branch of the United States government because it is composed of national policy makers.

Lesson 12

New Vocabulary :

predecessor : pendahulu
fundamental : mendasar
premise : alasan/pendapat
dogma : kepercayaan
merit : pantas
monk : biarawan
treatises : risalah/acuan
imperfection : ketidaksempurnaan
asserted : menyatakan
elusive : terabaikan/sukar dipahami
artisans : ahli
accustomed : membiasakan
cryptic : samar
attracted : menarik
struggle : berjuang
distinct : berbeda
labored : bekerja
earnestly : dengan sungguh-sungguh
devoted : mengabdikan
literary : berkaitan
The Ideas Of Each Paragraph :

1. Alchemy was alchemy was the predecessor of the modern science of chemistry
2. Early describes authentic works on European alchemy
3. about the early alchemists used the sun and moon terns to keep secret work, which in the difference between the base metals and gold.
4. explain about them to get a broad knowledge of chemicals because, alchemist laboratory failed to produce gold from other materials.

Answer The Question :

1. D. Alchemy was the predecessor of modern chemistry
2. B. Genuine
3. A. Perfection
4. B. An element that was never found
5. B. Secret
6. A. To keep the work secret
7. C. Artisans
8. B. The Literary alchemists recorded it in writing
9. B. Some very important scientific discoveries were made by alchemists

Lesson 11

New Vocabulary :

principles : prinsip/dasar
promulgation : pengumuman
rejects : menolak
outright : sekaligus
imposed : memaksakan
ultimately : akhirnya
inseparably : tidak dapat dipisahkan
utilization : pemakaian
functionalism : berfungsi
excluding : tidak termasuk
sculptor : pemahat
innate : bawaan
spontaneous : secara spontan
palette : palet/lukis
terrain : tanah lapang
permeate : menembus
providing : menyediakan
separate : memisahkan/terpisah
Moreover : selain itu

sparse : jarang
The Idea Of Each Paragraph :

The explanation of organic architecture
The explanation of natural rinciples
Differences of organic architecture
Answer The Question :

1. A. Natural architecture
2. B. Eventually
3. C. Promoted
4. A. A bank that is built to look like a Greek Temple
5. B. To give an example of natural principles
6. A. Difficult to see
7. D. Form and function are one
8. C. Nature should be respected

Summary Of The Passage :

the organic architect views the site and materials as an innate form that develops organically from within.

Lesson 10

New Vocabulary :

Acacia : akasia
shrubs : semak belukar
mimosa : pohon berbunga kuning
wattle : anyaman dahan kayu
daub : melumurkan
legumes : kacang polong
edible : dapat dimakan
spreading : menyebar
fragrant : harum
foliage : dedaunan
unobtrusive : mencolok
commonly : biasanya
dense : tebal
bark : kulit pohon
tannin : samak
acidic : keasaman
proven : membuktikan / terbukti
arid : kering/gersang
thrive : tumbuh subur
blossom : bunga
The Idea Of Each Paragraph :

The Origin of Acacia trees
The information about species of Acacia
Season blossom of acacia tree
Answer The Question :

1. B. Characteristic and varieties of the acacia
2. C. Twelve
3. A. Grow well
4. B. Varieties
5. C. Is taller than the Bailey Acacia
6. A. Smooth
7. B. Elaborate
8. D. Black Acacia
9. B. A table
10. C. August
Summary Of The Passage :

Nearly five hundred species of Acacia have been analyzed, identified, categorized, and proven capable of survival in hot and generally arid parts of the world.

Lesson 9

New Vocabulary :

Precipitation : Pengendapan/ air hujan
commonly : biasanya
referred : menunjuk
atmospheric : udara
annual : tahunan
equally : dengan sama
typically : secara khas
factors : faktor
altitude : ketinggian
proximity : kedekatan
prevailing : berlaku
Gulf : teluk
Coast : pesisir
windward : atas angin
leeward : di bawah angin
substantially : pada hakekatnya
ascending : menaiki
therefore : oleh sebab itu
drier : drierlebih kering
diversity : keaneka ragaman
The Ideas Of Each Paragraph :

The definition of precipitation
Characteristic of precipitation
Answer The Question :

1. A. Precipitation
2. C. Rainfall
3. B. Rain, hail, and snow
4. A. Thirty-six inches
5. B. By four inches
6. C. Neamess to
7. D. The pacific coast
8. B. Latitude
9. A. Fundamentally
10. B. Precipitation
Summary Of The Passage :

The amount of precipitation that an area receives is a combined result of several factors, including location, altitude, proximity to the sea, and the direction of prevailing winds.